SlovArch - Slovenská Archeológia. Rişcuţa, Cristian I. Syria - Syria.
Cristian Ioan Popa types. The context of the discovery The provenance of the metal item from Boholt is unclear. The information provided by Ioan Andriţoiu in the above-cited publications is quite scarce and highly uncertain.
The first professional archaeological research on this site was undertaken inwhen the aforementioned archaeologist from Deva probed the crest of the Ciuta Hill in Boholt,7 at an altitude of meters RAN code It is certain that inwhen the results of the research were published, there was no information regarding the metal item. What we do know is that certain surface surveys had been carried out here,11 but making a connection between the artefact under scrutiny and these studies would be highly risky.
The sites at Boholt have been mentioned in the scholarly literature since the end of the nineteenth century. After a surface survey on Ciuta Hill, István Téglás noted the discovery of several potsherds with fingernail impressions, decorated through incisions or various applications, as well as several jasper, chalcedony and silex items, spread out over the crest.
He also noted some similar materials from the neighbouring highlands of Măgulicea. The materials are held by the Museum of Cluj Téglásp. Another lot from Boholt, which probably also originated from Ciuta, is held by the museum in Deva and remains still unique to this day16 fig. Since then, a considerably large number of scholarly texts have addressed this issue, but they merely summarise the information given by the aforementioned authors, with no new contributions.
I was thus able to collate the data with the dating online ornament information. The ornament is made of a single wire with a round cross-section and a thickened middle mm.
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The ends were thinned The entire wire was then curved, thus forming an ornament that seems to be an open-end bracelet enclosing an oval space of approx. The deformation of the item modified its original form and probably occurred during prehistoric times.
As a result of this mechanical intervention, one of the ends was straightened. The item has a relatively well preserved light green slip that provides clues regarding the raw materials used in its making: copper or bronze. Spectrometric analyses with atomic emission undertaken in Bristol have 13 Téglásp. Functional ascription: Necklace or bracelet?
Ioan Andriţoiu, who noted the copper ornament from Boholt, assigned it to the necklace category. Under this categorization he also mentions it in the footnotes of an article21 and in the title of the scientific communication in which he presented the item. If we were to accept that the item from Boholt belongs to the necklace category, we would also have to consider that there are two sub- categories, dependent upon the method of manufacturing the wire: hammering or casting.
The latter method is exclusively characteristic of the Bronze Age, the former defining a previous and, as such, archaic period of manufacturing technique.
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The following text discusses which sub-type our item belongs to. It is also the oldest known necklace with rolled ends in Europe. István Kovács initially described the item as having simple, sharp ends fig. The only analogy from the necklace category was found on the left side of the Prut River, in a grave in Căinari Republic of Moldovabut it has simple, straight ends. This item was also cited by other authors, such as István Bóna Bónap. Anca-Diana Popescu38 also mentioned them, confirming the chronology proposed by Mária Novotná in her assessment of the older age of the Central European items.
For instance, in the Gumelniţa culture settlement phase B 1 in Căscioarele, a bone statue was found bearing a miniature necklace made from a copper plate around its neck.
The copper necklace from grave 4 of the necropolis in Decea Mureşului a - the version with straight ends; b - the version with rolled ends after Kovács - 1; Kovács - 2 34 M. Novotná considers the necklace from Decea Mureşului to be the oldest one known, while also drawing attention to the corpse that was wearing it. The skull indicated trepanation, which would suggest that that person held a distinctive position within the community, since, in the Baden culture, the wearers of necklaces received special treatments and inventories Novotnáp.
In the article cited by the authors Ecsedyp. Ecsedy makes no such claim. Grave 4 of the necropolis from Decea Mureşului, showing the way in which the necklace was worn around the neck after Kovács Fig. Grave 5 in Ariceştii Rahtivani, containing a copper necklace, after Frînculeasa et al. Later, necklaces with rolled ends reappeared in Central Europe in Baden culture areas.
They reappeared in the now familiar funerary contexts, as attested to in the discoveries from Leobersdorf,42 Lichtenwörth43 and Baden-Königshohle.
Recently, an item similar to those from Slovakia was discovered in in Ariceştii-Rahtivani, Romania, in a tumular dating online ornament associated with the Jamnaia culture. Its currently unique presence in this culture was emphasized, and it generated a 42 Kunap.
The uniqueness of the necklace from Ariceştii-Rahtivani fig. Even though proposing a certain cultural affiliation of the M 3B grave is quite difficult, it has been convincingly shown that the vessel from its inventory undoubtedly belongs to the Coţofeni culture. However, the early dating of the grave in Ariceştii-Rahtivani is surprising, since the C14 assay indicates the final quarter of the fourth millennium BC. The analogies were well identified, the most relevant of which being with one of the vessels from the Coţofeni complex 5 in Silvaşu dating online ornament Sus Luca et al.
Examples from the Monteoru culture were found among funerary discoveries in Sărata Monteoru, Pietroasa Mică, Cândeşti and Cârlomăneşti. Halsringe; Eng. II; Gerloffp.
See the similar Bronze Age discoveries from Egypt Bittelp. Furthermore, there has been a complete lack of similar artefacts found in the Coţofeni culture area; nor have any similar contemporary items this small from which cultural exchanges could be inferred been found in neighbouring localities. It would appear that we must seek the origin of this type of ornament in the Cucuteni-Tripolje culture area.
Two items from the hoard of metal objects found in Gorodnitsa dated to the Cucuteni A-B phase, possibly even the incipient Cucuteni B phase were missing from the initial publication, but were subsequently mentioned by Mária Novotná. Although only one item was depicted,67 fig. Their likeness regards both their crafting, from wire, and the rolling technique applied to the ends.
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They are also similar in diameter: 5. Therefore, I do not believe that they represent miniature replicas of necklaces, but a different type of ornament. Their sizes and shapes indicate that they are more likely bracelets worn around the wrists. The rolled ends could have both decorative and practical purposes, since the design would prevent damage to the skin or to clothing, especially important if the item also had a functional purpose, such as tightening the sleeves of a shirt.
There is another example of a copper bracelet which has also been investigated very little, first mentioned in old research conducted at Pecica- Şanţul Mare. Roska illustrated it schematically, together with other metal objects, mentioning that it originated from the oldest deposition of the settlement;70 it was republished two decades ago in a drawing that indicates a bracelet Armringe with an oval section, a straight end and a rolled dating online ornament fig.
Another copper bracelet with straight ends is illustrated from the same source Roskafig. The item, together with another bracelet published by Roska, is mentioned among the Eneolithic discoveries by V. Sava, but only in the older publication, offering no details regarding the rolled end Savap. Furthermore, P. Therefore, it is chronologically closer to the item found in Gorodnitsa, but it is distinguished by its unique shape, having just one rolled end. What makes it more similar to the two aforementioned items is its small size, which once again supports the hypothesis that such items were used as bracelets.
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Their small interior diameter suggests that they were most likely worn by young girls. The possibility that they may have been used as secondary accessories, over another type of ornament, cannot be completely excluded, but there are no arguments in this respect.
The number of metal bracelets found in the Coţofeni culture area is rather small. Limiting the discussion to the confirmed stratigraphic contexts, we can only refer to two certain items, both of which are single-spiral items: one originating from the Coţofeni III dwelling in Sebeş-Papuc,72 and the other from Poiana Ampoiului-Piatra Corbului. Although it is deformed, we can imagine its similar shape.
The Sebeş item, however, is different in terms of its its rolled ends and rectangular cross-section.
It also has a twist in its middle, but this may have occurred accidentally perhaps in the same accident that destroyed its initial shape ; I do not believe it represents a form of decoration.
With respect to the manufacturing methods, the closest temporal and geographic analogies for the bracelet from Sebeş are the items found in tumular graves dated to the beginning of the Bronze Age in Mada74 and Poiana Aiudului. However, it is difficult to classify due to its small dimensions fig.
A copper item from a Coţofeni III dwelling L 8 from the Şincai-Cetatea Păgânilor site also seems to be deformed; its ends are very bent, but it is difficult to establish whether it is raw material or a finished item76 fig.
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Another copper wire from 72 Ciugudeanp. Kadar, but they were erroneously attributed to the Coţofeni culture Kadarp. The complete publication of the discovery can be found in Rişcuţa et al. Kadar considers the bracelet to be a secondary item small wire Kadarp.
Ciugudean only illustrates the artifact, without discussing it Ciugudeanpl. Ciugudean - 2, V. Lazăr - 4; 1, 3 - drawings C. Popa Two bracelets with rolled ends from the cemetery in Cruceni,78 as well as a small spiral arm-guard Handschutzspiralen from the hoard found in Aiud,79 similar to the item from Boholt, indicate a function connected to their being worn on the arm, and attest to the perpetuation of such artefacts until the Late Bronze Age Bz D-Ha A.
Conclusions Several conclusions can be drawn from dating online ornament direct, typological and functional analysis of the metal object from Boholt. The first important observation is that the item, due to its small dimensions, was not a necklace, but a bracelet.
At the moment, there are no links between the two eras, which lie approximately 1, years apart, or between the necklaces with rolled ends. Thus, there are two types of similar ornament, with identical closing systems and rolled ends, but with different usages: neck-rings Ösenhalsringen and bracelets Armringen. The typological analysis threw up certain differences, but similarities as well.
The chemical composition yielded similar results to dating online ornament anaologies: On Ciuta Hill, the discoveries were attributed to the Şoimuş cultural group, but we do not know whether they originate from the survey made in in which such materials were not illustratedor from the surveys mentioned later by I. Roska, from I. The ornament from Boholt must be reassessed in a future serious debate regarding the types of metal artefacts found in the Coţofeni culture area.
Such an endeavour is necessary both in clarifying certain evolutional- typological systems in which the item under scrutiny would have - erroneously - been an important link, and in the study of one of the very few copper objects known from Coţofeni settlements. Although the oldest materials identified today as Şoimuş items belong to the old collections held by the museum from Deva, starting with the 19 th century Rişcuţap. Harţuche by publishing the ones from Ţebea Andriţoiup.
Andriţoiu - Ioan Andriţoiu, Descoperiri arheologice la Crăciuneşti com. Băiţa, jud. Hunedoarain Apulum, XVI,p. Andriţoiu - Ioan Andriţoiu, Contribuţii la cunoaşterea bronzului timpuriu în sud-vestul Transilvaniei.
Grupul cultural Şoimuş, in Thraco-Dacica, X, p.
Andriţoiu - Ioan Andriţoiu, Metalurgia bronzului în sud-vestul Transilvaniei. Epoca bronzului Iin AnB, n.
The institution is one of the most important museums in Romania and owns overcultural items. The museum has departments of history, art, ethnography, natural sciences, and subordinated memorial museums: "Iosif Vulcan" and "Ady Endre", as well as restoration laboratories: painting, metals, textiles, ceramics, bone, leather, and ethnographic items. The History Department: finds from the Paleolithic to Modern Times, including items from the Bronze Age, the Celtic and Dacian coin hoard from Silindria, ornament thesauri and Dacian silver coins, the Roman-Byzantine gilded silver cups dating from the 4th - 5th viteza datând uber 50, discovered at Tauteu, county of Bihor; the history collection: central European silverware from the 16th - 17th centuries; Romanian and foreign rare books collection 16th - 17th centuries ; clocks and watches dating from the 18th centuries; The Art Department: foreign art: Flemish anonymous "Madonna with Child"Benczur Gyula "Portrait of Cardinal Dating online ornamentItalian etchings the 18th centuryRaphael's bible; Albrecht Dürer etchings, the 19th century; decorative art: German porcelain and silverware the 19th century ; Romanian art: Theodor Pallady, Gheorghe Petraşcu, Iosif Iser, Jean Alexandru Steriadi, Nicolae Tonitza, Victor Brauner "Blue Flame""Coriolan Hora" Hall; interwar Romanian graphics. Ethnography Department: peasant ceramics produced in the centres of Crişana Criştiorul de Jos, Leheceni, Leleşti, Vadu Crişului, Borşa, Târnăviţabut also outside it Vama ; folk costumes and textiles from Crişana; the furniture collection and first of all the chairs one from the Beiuş area; fittings of Vărzari; glass icons produced in: Nicula, Scheii Braşovului, Maierii of Alba Iulia; knitted work from Ieru Valley.
Frînculeasa et al. Prahovain SP, 11,p.
Gogâltan - Florin Gogâltan, Bronzul timpuriu şi mijlociu în Banatul românesc şi pe cursul inferior al Mureşului. Noi materiale aparţinând grupului Şoimuş, in Cristian I. Popa, Gabriel T. Rustoiu edsOmagiu profesorului Ioan Andriţoiu cu prilejul împlinirii a 65 de ani. Studii şi cercetări arheologice, Alba Iulia,p.
Jablonka - Peter Jablonka, Globalisierung im 3. Jahrtausend v.
Junk et al. Metz, B. Luca - Sabin A. Luca et al. Luca, Dragoş Diaconescu, Cristian C. Metalurgia - Metalurgia neferoaselor în Transilvania preistorică, Cluj-Napoca, Motzoi-Chicideanu et al.
Câteva date noi privind standardul funerar în cadrul culturii Monteoru, in European Archaeology - online, March Pescaru et al. Vălişoara, jud. Punct: Ruşti, in CCA. CampaniaConstanţa,p. Popa - Cristian I. Popa, Modificări culturale la finalul Bronzului timpuriu şi începutul Bronzului mijlociu în Transilvania, in Cristian I. Hunedoarain Crisia, XLI,p. Ferencz, Nicolae C. Popa, În căutarea identităţii unei lumi.
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Ethnography Department: peasant ceramics produced in the centres of Crişana Criştiorul de Jos, Leheceni, Leleşti, Vadu Crişului, Borşa, Târnăviţabut also outside it Vama ; folk costumes and textiles from Crişana; the furniture collection and first of all the chairs one from the Beiuş area; fittings of Vărzari; glass icons produced in: Nicula, Scheii Braşovului, Maierii of Alba Iulia; knitted work from Ieru Valley. Natural Sciences Department: various scientific collections, including the palaeontology and zoology ones with pieces of national, and world value, unique ones; reservations and monuments of nature from the city and county.
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