On the other hand, an association was made between this shape and Thracian-Getae14 and Scythian15 symbolism. Monetary signs appear within the Ionian colonial world, and trade in the area is evidence in this regard for the archaic period. Actrita a aparut cu personajul ei din mnogoseriykah "Flash" 7 episoade , "Legends of Tomorrow" 4 episoade. Economie şi monedă, Iaşi.
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Bălăşescu, M. Frânculeasa, M. Mărgărit, O. Negrea, E. Popa, V. Radu, A. SoficaruSeciu—Judeţul Prahova. One of the main questions we put is: what connections are between the shape of these monetary signs and everyday realities in the 6th-5th century B. Were they made in "arrowhead" shape without ultimately symbolizing anything of the purpose for which they were created?
Is there a more elaborate answer in this regard or should we find a very simple explanation, as we consider we should identify for that period? They were designated as counterparties for goods, like grain and fish.
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These seem to be the most sought after commodities of the Greek population and the monetary signs could also be the representation of grains as in the classic pieces caseor of marine fish, respectively. Our opinion is that the interpretation was unequivocal more precisely their significance and purpose for the 6th-5th centuries B. We consider, as a hypothesis, that we have to establish a link with the economic elements of everyday life, with the economic and commercial necessity in the early relations established between the Greeks and the natives namely the Getae.
In our bootstrap dating tema site-ului, when casting these monetary signs, certain local trade elements were taken into consideration; thus they seem to not symbolically render a battle weapon the military oliver și laurel datingbut the very commodity for whose trading they were created: grains of wheat or barley, or fish products, etc.
We were inspired in these new considerations by the study of monetary iconography specific to the Greek world. Besides the characteristic elements of the local or general Pantheon gods and their attributesthe Greek centres and the poleis also imprinted the main sources of income — such as fish, cereals ears or grainspottery, etc. There are numerous examples to this oliver și laurel dating, valid in the entire Greek world, especially in the colonies.
The specimen we will refer to were cast from the first half of the 5th century B. The 5th century B. XI,p.
These mints are at great distance from the area we investigate, but their respective iconography reveals the reality of the rendering and symbolization techniques in the Greek world, as well as all the aspects regarding metrology, epigraphy, countermarking, etc. By shape, they could represent cereal grains wheat, barley, etc. The chronological difference between the execution of the coins and the application of iconographic themes and the end of casting the respective monetary signs at the Black Sea is rather small.
In the absence of experiments — impossible to reproduce in historic consecution — specialists cannot rely on pearl jam dating site foundations. Several of our interpretations can be analyzed, confirmed or refuted by future investigations. We consider them working hypotheses. Rezumat: Alegerea temei prezentului material răspunde unor preocupări personale care deja ne-au acoperit câţiva ani din cercetarea de profil.
Una din întrebările principale pe care ne-am pus-o este ce legătură există între forma acestor semne monetare şi realitatea cotidiană din sec. VI-V a. De asemenea, dacă erau elemente comerciale, ce semnificau?
Pentru că ele nu exprimă în totalitate funcţiile monedei. Există oare un răspuns mai complicat în acest sens sau ar trebui să găsim o explicaţie extrem de simplă, aşa cum, considerăm noi, ar fi trebuit să identificăm pentru acea perioadă?
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Ele erau destinate stabilirii unor contrapartide pentru mărfuri, aşa cum erau la acel moment produsele cerealiere şi piscicole. Cele două categorii par a fi cele mai căutate mărfuri de populaţia de origine greacă, iar aceste semne monetare ar putea să deţină, după această primară punte de legătură stabilită prin intermediul vârfurilor de săgeţi fusiforme, oliver și laurel dating alte etape în întreaga parte secundă a sec.
Opinăm că reprezentarea lor trebuie să fie extrem de clară mai precis semnificaţia şi destinaţia lor pentru populaţia sec. Mai degrabă credem, la stadiu de ipoteză, că trebuie stabilită o legătură cu elementele economice ce ţineau de viaţa de fiecare zi, de necesitatea economico-comercială existentă în raporturile de început stabilite între greci şi autohtoni în speţă populaţia getică.
Din punctul nostru de vedere, turnarea acestor semne monetare a trebuit să ţină seama de atragerea sub o anumită formă a elementelor locale la schimb, la comerţ, şi această cale, cea mai simplă, pare a reda simbolic mai mult sau mai puţin nu o armă de luptă vârful de săgeată militarci însăşi marfa pentru tranzacţionarea cărora au fost create cereale-spic de grâu sau boabe de grâu şi orz, produse piscicole-peşti etc. Aceste noi consideraţii ne-au fost sugerate de studiul iconografiei monetare specifice lumii greceşti.
Centrele lumii greceşti, ca şi polis-urile de mai mică anvergură, pe lângă elementele specifice ale Pantheon-ului local sau oliver și laurel dating zei şi atributeau imprimat pe aversurile şi reversurile tipurilor monetare şi sursele principale de venit, aşa cum am putea enumera peştii, cerealele spice sau boabeceramica etc.
Exemplele în acest sens sunt nenumărate, valabile în întreaga lume greacă, continentală şi mai ales colonială. Exemplarele la care vom face trimitere au fost bătute începând cu prima parte a sec. Dar ele nici nu puteau fi, pentru sec.
Desigur că aceste monetării se află la o mare depărtare de arealul nostru cercetat, dar iconografiile lor trădează în ultimă instanţă realităţi ale tehnicii de redare şi simbolizare ale lumii greceşti, ca şi toate celelalte aspecte ce ţin de metrologie, epigrafie, contramarcare etc.
Cu alte cuvinte, ele ar putea semnifica, ca formă, boabele de cereale, fie că este vorba de grâu, orz etc. Diferenţele cronologice dintre realizarea monedelor şi aplicarea temelor iconografice şi finalul turnării în Pont a respectivelor semne monetare sunt destul de mici.
Multe dintre interpretările noastre avansate pot fi analizate, confirmate sau infirmate de cercetăriile viitoare. Noi le considerăm a fi la stadiul de ipoteze de lucru.
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Key words: Dobrudja, Black Sea, monetary signs, trade, pre-Roman period. Cuvinte cheie: Dobrogea, Marea Neagră, semne monetare, schimburi comerciale, perioadă pre-romană.
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The much desired complete understanding of the historical truth is a goal that historiography will never be able to fully achieve. This findings arising from the object of knowledge can be generalized for all scientific research. The subject we selected for this paper answers some personal concerns to which we have already dedicated several years of research. One of the main questions we put is: what connections are there between the shape of these monetary signs and everyday realities in the 6th-5th century B.
Were they made in "arrowhead" shape Fig. Why is it not the same case for the fish or the small dolphins cast in the north-western Black Sea area Fig. Arrowheads-monetary signs from the first category: earlier pieces and classic pieces Arrowheads-monetary signs from the first category: classic pieces On this occasion, inter alia, we found several specific features of the analyzed phenomenon, including some directly related to the current approach.
Thus, the occurrence of barter goods in exchange for goods was considered the first elementary step of actual trade2.
In other words, barter has developed into the first estimation of value.
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Generally, the practice of this exchange process was considered uncomfortable, sometimes unfair, involving the parties' agreement3. The ascending trend of the economy and exchanges between communities in the west and northwest of Pontus Euxinus area, around the middle of the 1st century B. This was a standard with more or less distinct value, intended oliver și laurel dating transactions, taking the shape of bronze arrowheads in a single known case the arrowheads are made of lead 4 with monetary value5.
The phenomenon of making monetary signs with economic value included, at oliver și laurel dating certain time, in a particular context, most of the Milesian colonies in the north and northwest of the Black Sea. It represents a positive reaction rb dating site a real necessity of the economic market and the trade conducted in the local geographic or immediately adjacent milieu.
These monetary signs represented one of the many ways to ensure the participation of the local element, the perpetuation of economic relations and social collaboration.
They constitute another side of the Greek civilization, destined to make the Getae receptive to borrowing some Greek models in everyday life. Monetary signs appear within the Ionian colonial world, and trade in the area is evidence in this regard for the archaic period. They benefit from oliver și laurel dating existence of "commercial routes between the Black Sea and the Ionian Sea"6 that were constantly used.
The issue of monetary signs is particularly complex and many aspects are still waiting to be resolved. In fact, we do not intend to oliver și laurel dating all of the problems stemming from registration and scrutiny of all finds.
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But we will focus on those directly related to the subject. Olbian dolphins discovered in Dobrudja: the warehouse from Zebil and an isolated silver find from Târguşor 6.
In time, several possible roles were given to arrowheads-monetary signs: economic8, magic- religious9 and last, but not least, if one accepts the relational hypothesis10, status symbol value.
They may represent the form of prestigious gifts offered by the Milesians to Thracian noblemen for matrimonial and alliance purposes are associated in the same group of gifts that also includes parade weapons, cosmetics and textiles, drinking vessels etc. The arrowhead shape could also be linked to Apollo Toxophoros12 cult, the bow and arrows being two of his attributes On the other hand, an association was made between this shape and Thracian-Getae14 and Scythian15 symbolism.
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In a single case, irrelevant in 7 Topalov The standard role in exchange is probably given by their shape Arrowheads-monetary signs occur both isolated and in hoards, especially in rural and under colonial influence areas The isolated finds of arrowheads-monetary signs do not confirm a common practice.
Also, monetary signs were found in places that generally correspond to known Getae centres. The presence of either arrowheads-monetary signs or small Olbian dolphins in isolated finds or hoards points to economic and trade links between local communities and Greek merchants from the coast, in their archaic stage of manifestation Later, in the second quarter of the 5th century B.
In the Classical, Hellenistic, and early Roman period these colonies struck in mints various monetary types. This is part of a general Greek and Roman phenomenon, created beyond the close limits of the investigated area.
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Striking coins met economic and commercial interests and propaganda of each colony on its territory and beyond its commercial limits from oliver și laurel dating archaic21 period up to the Roman periodinclusive They were designed to establish counterparties for goods, like grain and fish products. The two groups appear to be the most sought after commodities by the Greek population and these monetary signs could have gone through several stages throughout the second half of the 6th century B.
Our opinion is that the representation must have been unequivocal more precisely, their significance and purpose for the 6th-5th centuries B. As a 16 Wells In our opinion, torun dating de viteză casting of these monetary signs took into consideration certain local trade elements; thus they seem to symbolically render not a battle weapon the military arrowheadbut the very commodity for whose trading they were created: grains of wheat or barley, or fish products, etc.
It is possible that at some point these monetary signs have ensured the "monetary" needs in cities We were inspired in these new considerations by the study of monetary iconography specific to the Greek world Besides the specific elements of the local or general Pantheon gods and their attributesthe Greek centres and the poleis also imprinted cat girl online dating main sources of income — such as fish, cereals ears of grainspottery, etc.