The Hungarians unsuccessfully tried to capture the fortress in the battle of Temesvár. It is assumed that in the 9th century Knyaz Glad ruled over these lands. Hampel, Alterthümer des frühen Mittelalters in Ungarn, vol. Matchmakers petrec o mulțime de timp a cunoaște clienții, discutarea hobby-urile lor, obiective și perspective asupra vieții, astfel încât acestea să poată face recomandări în cunoștință de cauză matrimoniale. Bazat din Londra, Berkeley International face introducerile, aranjează datele de calitate, și inspiră relații de durată între o clasă de elită de single -uri. Székely eds.
So does the monument to Bohdan Khmelnitsky — which stands in front of the Romanian school, facing Romania.
Ukrainian script is seen mostly on the street signs and official information boards. It is comprehensible to the inhabitants but not many are fluent in it. In daily life it gives way to Russian, which serves as the local lingua franca.
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Most people I had a chance to interact with were sceptical of or reluctant towards the state language. A common justification was the lack of contact and impossibility of learning it at a proficient level. Sometimes reluctance towards the language was accompanied by scepticism about the Ukrainian state as such. It is worth mentioning that the people declaring Russian ethnicity or mother tongue form a barely significant number of inhabitants.
What is more, the place is hundreds of kilometres away from the Ukrainian or Moldovan territories densely populated by Russian speakers.
It also makes the language neutral, neither favouring nor discriminating local ethnic groups. Unlike some Transcarpathian towns and villages inhabited by Hungarians, in Solotvyno there are no monuments or memorial boards referring to the Hungarian tradition or bilingual street names.
Admittedly though, street name signs in any language are quite rare. References to Hungarian history and culture are made mostly in direct oral statements, as individuals and entire families cultivate the memory of Hungarian past of the place and willingly talk about it. With regard to Romanian symbolism, a statue of the Moldovan prince Stephen the Great and Holy whose ancestors are believed to originate from northern Maramuresh was erected in the centre of Solotvyno in after almost three years of preparations.
The Romanian writer Mihai Eminescu, after a similar period of time, has only been honoured with an empty pedestal in front of the Romanian school.
However, Eminescu has been honoured with a street name, and so has George Coşbuc. Romanian tradition is also cultivated through cultural events on the Great Union Day commemorating the Union of Romania with Transylvania and the Unification Day the unification of Moldavia and Valahia into the Kingdom of Romania.
None of these commemorated historical events concerned Solotvyno in terms of its geographical location. Still, Romanian TV especially music and entertainment channels as well as radio and music commonly played on mobile phones văduvul datând passed around through Bluetooth are highly popular.
Local inter-ethnic relations can be traced in the numerous mixed families as well as everyday interactions in the workplaces or public spaces such as streets, market and shops. In such a diverse environment, the number of ethnically mixed marriages is difficult to assess but is unquestionably highas dating on-line berkeley the category of ethnic belonging.
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This makes the ethnic boundaries blurred and the ethno-national categories arbitrary. Even those who declare a particular ethnicity have people of other ethnicities kinsmen and relatives in their families.
Ethnic affiliation appears to be strictly declarative, and the category of mother tongue does not always apply. References can occur in conversations in the form of occasional jokes sometimes accompanied by vicious remarks or mentions of the history and multi national legacies of the town and the regions of Transcarpathia and historical Maramuresh.
This is accompanied by a widespread knowledge and frequent use of the different languages. Sustaining a conversation in the language it was started is common practice.
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In the past, having the same job played an important role in sustaining inter-ethnic relations. Another aspect of coexistence was swopping the shifts so that the co-workers of different confessional affiliation followed by the ethnic one could take part in their religious holidays.
As I was told by one of my informants, Nationality [Rus. This attitude could also be observed in leisure time hanging out together, switching between languages or occasional conversations in public places. Various stereotypes are applied much more frequently to the ethnically Romanian villagers from neighbouring Dibrova and, to the lesser extent, Bila Tserkva. These stereotypes, which are commonly shared by Solotvnians of different ethnic identification and are not necessarily negative, are associated with their wealth and other local specificities, like strong family networks and a strong attachment to the land and to their villages dating on-line berkeley origin.
What I describe in this sub-section contributes to the processes of ethnic differentiation as observed in the borderlands, where both state and ethnic boundaries are subverted and negotiated Donnan, Wilson The attitudes towards Romania and Hungary with their inhabitants as well as Ukraine and Ukrainian citizenship, which also contribute to local ethnicity and differentiation, are elaborated in the next sub-section of the article.
Ethnic minorities and the state part 2 : other states, other citizenships The difficult economic situation has fuelled criticism of the Ukrainian state and its political elites. However, Romania and Hungary are not necessarily seen as an alternative. However, we can speak of the similar exclusion with the ethno-national factor being even more visible, as almost all people travelling to Hungary identify themselves as Hungarians.
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Another notable issue concerns citizenship. Although it is forbidden to possess dual or multiple citizenship in Ukraine, the state lacks the means to control and prevent the process of obtaining foreign passports by its citizens, who are obligated by law to give up Ukrainian citizenship when granted another Shevel This makes it difficult to estimate the number of Ukrainians who do possess other passports Shevel ; Popescu The citizenship policies of neighbouring countries and their impact on Ukraine and its inhabitants are also remarkable.
The Hungarian law on citizenship, in effect from January Act XLIVentitles the inhabitants of the historical Hungarian territories, regardless of their ethnicity,11 to apply for citizenship of Hungary Toth ; Kovacs, Toth At the time of my fieldwork, it was too early to estimate the scale of this phenomenon in Solotvyno I talked to four people who were planning to apply and one who was still unsure.
According to the Romanian law, those who have relatives in Romania and the former citizens of the Kingdom of Romania as well as their families can apply for a passport Iordachi I autor speed dating two people who had acquired Romanian citizenship and one family of five who were interested in it, but they assured me dating on-line berkeley the phenomenon is much more widespread.
Importantly, the perspective of obtaining Hungarian or Romanian passports, which not only makes it easier to cross the bridge to Sighet or visit Nyiregyhaza but also enables people to travel to and work in most of the EU countries, was not always accompanied by any plan to work or settle in the respective countries. The efforts to obtain Romanian and Hungarian passports should be seen as part of a strategy for migration and to escape from poverty, rather than ethno-national ideology or the outburst of nationalism.
Borders dating on-line berkeley mobility in uncertain times The collapse of communism in the USSR and its satellite countries signified a transformation of the national economies from state-planned into free market economies. Transformation in Central-Eastern Europe was not a unified process, as the communist systems were not either.
In the context of economic changes in Ukraine and their impact on Solotvyno, we should note the withdrawal of the state from its active role in the economy and the lack of public investments.
This has resulted in the closing and collapse of the mining industry and other workplaces. For the residents, this has meant a lack of employment and regular income.
Early history[ edit ] The region bounded by the Mureșthe Tisza and the Danube was very fertile and offered favorable conditions for food and human livelihood yet in BC. The first identifiable civilization in Banat were the Dacians who left traces of their past.
The condition of the local economy also has an impact on the social mood and adds to the easily observed indifference, sometimes turning into reluctance towards the Ukrainian state. According to the commonly shared view, the entire industry and all the public institutions were developed during Austro-Hungarian, Czechoslovak, Hungarian and Soviet times.
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Czechoslovakia built water supply facilities and apartment buildings. The Soviets developed the industry, erected concrete blocks of flats with running water and central heating.
But in independent Ukraine the workplaces were closed and the infrastructure devastated. As a starting point for the analysis of the diverse nature of state borders and their impact on groups and individuals, I refer to the studies by Hastings Donnan and Thomas Wilson who treat borders as signs of the sovereignty and domain of the state and markers of the With their selectivity, borders seem more open for capital and commodities than for people, who are treated unequally on the basis of their citizenship and wealth Donnan, Wilson ; Smart, Smart I understand borderland as a region and a set of practices defined and determined by the border Alvareswhere the state is subjected to subversion Donnan, Wilson 4.
What is more, the studies of state borders, borderlands and mobility challenge the notion of separated cultures Alvares The mutual influence of the values, ideas, customs and shared economic relations of the borderlanders on both sides of the state border can also be associated with dating on-line berkeley Donnan, Wilson 5a dating on-line berkeley linked to circular mobility Triandafyllidou 12 in which migrants operate in social fields that transgress geographic, political, and cultural borders Brettel In the process of transnational migration they maintain social relations in both, sending and receiving, countries Schiller, Barsch, Blanc Applied to the studied case, these concepts link local cross-border mobility with labour migration to further destinations.
This political collapse triggered further processes which have led to the increased role of borders and the regulations of international mobility. The selective gate between Ukraine and Romania and the phenomena observed around the Solotvyno-Sighet border can serve as an example of something that is likely to take place on a wider scale.
The street market in Sighet is always full of traders, both from Solotvyno and Sighet, selling Ukrainian products: sweets, sunflower seeds, sunflower oil, sugar, flour, spices, toilet paper and cigarettes. People from both sides of the border cooperate in this buying-selling and in storing the products unsold or to-be-sold.
Some goods, like fruits, vegetables and meat, are cheaper in Romania and they are also carried across the border in the other direction but more for domestic use than for trading.
The shops in the centre of Solotvyno and just by the border some of them open till late or round the clock are always full of customers from Romania, coming by cars and loading their trunks full. The border crossing, the market dating on-line berkeley Sighet as well as the shops in Solotvyno appear as spaces of social and cultural interaction where law and order are renegotiated, commodities exchanged and the languages Romanian, Hungarian, Ukrainian and Russian mixed.
Travelling further than just across the bridge, i.
Ethnicity, even if arbitrary, is helpful in obtaining Romanian and Hungarian citizenships granted, let us remember, on historical backgrounds which entitle one to work in most of the EU countries including the Czech Republic. The majority of male Solotvynians women also migrate but on a smaller scale have experience working in the Czech Republic. It is also popular to bring in cars from the Czech Republic and to drive them without exchanging the number plates for Ukrainian plates, as this enables the owner to bypass a special tax for registering a foreign car in Ukraine.
The visa free regime between Russia and Ukraine and common fluency in Russian works in favour of migration in the opposite direction, and for many Solotvynians it is easier to travel to faraway Moscow than to nearby Sighet.
With its dynamic labour dating on-line berkeley, relatively high salaries, Moscow was often mentioned in conversations, also by those who had never been there. Popularity of Russian music, TV and movies made Russia even more present in daily life.
In their ethnographic research on Transcarpathia and the border crossings with Slovakia, Hungary and Romania, Andre Simonyi and Jessica Pisano point to the role that the proximity of the state border plays in the daily life of the borderlanders. Additionally, in her study of Szelmenc a predominantly ethnic Hungarian village divided by the Ukrainian-Slovakian borderJessica Pisano elaborates on the social and linguistic changes faced by the small community after opening the border crossing in the village particularly the increased use of Ukrainian and Slovak languages and the change in the structure of local properties due to development of trade Pisano Both studies acknowledge that living close to the checkpoint does not contribute to equal chances to cross it Pisano ; Simonyi, Pisano Particularly striking in this respect is how historical legacy and ethnic minority issues appear as intertwined with current international policies and legal dating on-line berkeley in the field of cross-border mobility and the circulations of goods and capital.
These studies convincingly portray the Hungarian national culture, consumer commercial culture, leisure and small economic activity in its specific borderland and peripheral shape.
I see these phenomena as linked to the economic situation and state politics which shape the daily life of the borderlanders. In Transcarpathia, this background has been changing for the last century along with changing state jurisdictions.
The latter also influences the level of cross-border contacts, family life and friendships for the inhabitants of both sides of the border, regardless of their ethnicity. Even if we assume that the state borders preserve and sustain international inequalities, groups and individuals work out different strategies to overcome these conditions and contradictions as well as to dealing with implied historical and ideological burdens.
Acknowledgements I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Agara Górny for her patience and remarks on different stages of my work as well as to the three anonymous reviewers who helped me structure my thoughts and argumentation.
However, the Solotvyno-Sighet case is different as, unlike in the previous examples, the towns have never formed one settlement.
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