Kik a vezetői és mi a célja? Historical settlements are also overrepresented on the list, thus the Committee would think over including new sites of this sort. In the United States of America, a clear policy on multiculturalism does not exist at the federal level. A study published in finds Romania lagging behind other countries of the European Union in terms of Internet access, with a population lacking basic information literacy skills.
What does this really mean?
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What are the conditions to he fulfilled by a site for gaining the membership on the list? What are the possible advantages and disadvantages of becoming a part of this heritage? Making well documented proposals in accordance with certain rules is the task of the States Parties of the Convention and takes place during the above mentioned meetings, the next one is to be held in the middle of this year.
Credibility and integrity of the nominated site are important factors too, as well as the guarantee of long-time preservation of cultural values on the settlement. In order to be ensured about the necessary conditions of preservation, a Management Plan and a Management Structure is required, the latter denoting the staff responsible for executing the plan.
World-wide recognition discussed above is certainly the most important outcome for a site nominated as part of world heritage. International collaboration, technical and professional assistance and exchange of experiences are also important benefits of the membership. Disadvantages may appear due to the same reasons: overcharging the site, forced or unsuccessfully managed development can turn it into a victim of its own fame.
TN: Hogyan látja, milyen esélyei vannak Nagyszebennek, hogy felkerüljön a világörökségi listára?
Mikorra várható a döntés? Bármilyen nagyszerű városról is van szó, bizony nem könynyű erre a kérdésre válaszolni. Különösen most nem, amikor a döntéshozatali folyamat előrehaladtával az esély latolgatásának a súlya is egyre nagyobb.
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Ugyancsak magas a történeti települések száma, nem csoda, hogy nagyon megfontolja az ebbe a kategóriába tartozó újabb helyszínek felvételét a Bizottság. A listára korábban már felvett Segesvár földrajzi közelsége nem növeli Nagyszeben önálló helyszínként való felvételének esélyét, jóllehet ez a két település, éppen eltérő jellegénél fogva pompásan kiegészítené egymást és adna teljesebb képet a világ ezen tájának történeti településeiről.
Mindezt egybevetve nem mondanám, hogy egyáltalán nincs esély, de sajnos azt sem, hogy biztosra vehető a felvétel.
A döntés a Világörökség Bizottság TN: What are the chances for Sibiu to become a part of world heritage? When will the decision be taken? What are its consequences for the town?
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It is difficult to answer such a question even in the case of a magnificent town as Sibiu. Especially now, when the decision process is in advance, considering pros and contras can have an increasing weight.
The present day world heritage list consists of objects, among which are cultural, natural and 24 of mixed type, settled mostly in Europe and North America. Historical settlements are also overrepresented on the list, thus the Committee would think over including new sites of this sort.
Summing up, I dare not say that there are no chances for Sibiu, but its inclusion to the list cannot be taken for granted. It is to be added, that Interview - Interviu - Interjú Ha az a remélt felvételről szól, Nagyszeben számára is meghozhatja mindazokat az előnyöket, amelyeket már általánosságban említettem.
Representative structures that hold digital information History and dynamics of social life, events at mental level, in time, allow considering and defining the historic regions as areas of ethnic coexistence. Known dart dating commercial regional level, especially after scientific studies undertaken in the twentieth century, the folklore in Romania was divided into many folklore areas, according to regions, counties or sub-regions of a county.
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- TN: Mint ismeretes Nagyszeben kérelmezte, hogy felkerülhessen a Világörökség listájára.
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Folklore gets to be broken even by villages or communes. This system of division, apparently exaggerated, highlights the multitude of customs and traditions, which, integrated, reveal the identity of Romanians, their ancient existence.
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Starting from the main ethnographic regions of Romania, there have been identified representative structures which dispose of digital information relating to elements of multiculturalism, primarily in rural areas.
From the cultural institutions holding such information we will address, on one hand, the museums and, on the other hand, the libraries. The heritage of a museum reflecting specific products of ages and given areas, firstly the product of so many generations, is integrated in the ongoing chain of progress of society in Romania.
Ethnographic museums are not only institutions that accumulate, preserve and recover through exhibitions, testimonies and documentation of heritage.
They are scientific institutions, with complex tasks, with a set research objective, following to a point the object itself of ethnography, having the particularity that they operate primarily with authentic testimonies of popular culture and social life, which have become since their acquisition, objects of museum.
In the network of sociological and ethnographic museums we remember the following categories: Museums dealing with the domain in a complex way, on specific territories; Museums dedicated especially to some aspects of popular culture architecture, occupations, techniques and crafts, artistic creation types, habits. This reflects, through the diversity of collections, a unique cultural pattern generated by ethnic coexistence between Romanians and other dart dating commercial.
In the museum, the permanent exhibition Multiculturalism in Dobrogea presents aspects of cultural identity of different populations that have dart dating commercial over time in Dobrogea and continue to live in harmony today. The ethnographic collection of the museum has pieces that identify instruments used in the practice of traditional occupations and crafts; they reflect the way in which local people adapted to a very special habitat relative to other regions. There are presented tools, devices used in fishing, beekeeping, horticulture, viticulture, seed processing, agriculture, milling, livestock and hunting.
Through digitization of collections of documents and creation of digital library, there is enabled successful promotion of values, better information dissemination and a high valorisation, at national and international level, of special collections, rare documents. In a multicultural society, libraries must focus on activities that allow contact between different ethnic and cultural groups and encourage intercultural exchanges, promoting understanding and tolerance between the ethnic and cultural groups.
As defined by the IFLA Federation of Library Association and Institution"multicultural library activities are an amount of library services, which must satisfy the requirements of a multicultural society. In Romania, there are libraries that have digital information.
Some of these will be presented briefly below.
Dacoromanica is the most important Romanian digital library, freely accessible on the Internet. Dacoromanica is the only professional digital library in Romania, designed to meet the challenges of the third millennium. Dacoromanica provides access to printed documents monographs, periodicals, postcards, maps in images and texts, audio and visual documents.
Digital Library of Mureş Digital Library of Mureş aims to promote beside the national goals also its own publications and to support the education and learning process through city and village libraries by providing well-documented teaching materials, created at the County Library of Mureş.
Searching is performed in metadata and full text of documents printed. The results can be sorted by relevance, title or publication date. In the National Digital Library there also will be included the documents created only in electronic format on-line books and journals, electronic resources from sites, databases etc.
Digitizing collections of documents and establishment of the National Digital Library provide for a better promotion of dart dating commercial values, better information dissemination and a high valorisation, at national and international level, of special collections and rare documents. Digital Library of cimec cimec is the most important institution in Romania in preservation and restoration of cultural heritage. Romanian Academy Library Romanian Academy, the highest national cultural forum, is also active in preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage.
InRomanian Academy, in collaboration with the Ministry of Culture and cimec started a digitization project.
Currently, the created database contains digital facsimiles of Eminescu s manuscripts, which are available online at the Web address: The Virtual Library of Romanian Academy can be accessed at the "Virtual Libraries" section and includes works of Romanian and foreign authors - writers, musicians, painters and inventors.
Conclusions In order to highlight and promote folklore culture and traditions of rural areas, by studying in particular some representative areas, we will develop an integrated system using multimedia methods and techniques. By the development of this system, it will be created a information cultural space regarding the valorisation and the protection of national heritage, as an important factor of cultural identity and its interferences with regional and European heritage.
An important aspect of the system refers to the promotion of heritage objectives related to the development of cultural tourism, which involves creating a positive image of the country in an international context. Steluta Pârâu: Multiculturalitate în Dobrogea. National, academic, school, special, and public libraries are featured along with their collections and users. Starting from the current stage in the development of Romanian libraries, the road ahead continues to be challenging, despite some progress.
Keywords: Romania, public libraries, academic libraries, national libraries, school libraries, special libraries, Biblionet aplicația de datare a flacării. The Library System in Romania The Romanian library system consists of national, public, academic, school, and special libraries. Except for a few academic libraries belonging to private universities, the entire library system in Romania is funded with public money National Libraries There are four libraries with national status in Romania: the National Library of Romania, the Library of the Romanian Academy, the National Pedagogical Library, and the National Military Library, all situated in Bucharest, the Capital City of Romania The National Library of Romania The most significant dart dating commercial in the existence of the National Library of Romania NLR was its foundation, inas the Central State Library as well as its move into the new locale, inaugurated on 15 December NLR traces its beginnings to the St.
Sava Dart dating commercial Library in Bucharest, established in and opened to the general public in After the creation of the Romanian state inthe library reached the status of central or national library. In it became Central Library of the [Romanian] State. The library continued to operate until when it was dismantled and its collections were incorporated into those of the Library of the Romanian Academy, established inwith the main responsibility to serve the scholarly needs of the members of the Romanian Academy.
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For more than half a century Romania had no national library. Some library historians argue that the Central State Library CSLestablished in with collections that had been confiscated from prominent inter-war politicians and institutions, was a pyramid-like communist creation while others consider it as a continuation of the St.
Sava College Library. CSL assumed a leading role in compiling national bibliographies, maintaining the national union catalog and serving as the national legal 19 BIBLIO International Conference on Library and Information Science repository, directly connected to preserving the country s national written heritage.
The rare book and manuscript collections, a result of massive post World War II confiscations were inventoried and placed in a separate locale, a building confiscated from the original owners after the communist take-over.
From its establishment until the collapse of communism in Romania, CSL had one director, a political appointee with pro-west orientation in terms of library practices.
The demise of the national librarian whose name was associated with the old guard led to a turnover of managers, some with no library experience whatsoever. Although national in denomination, the NLR started losing its supremacy and was no longer capable of maintaining all of its responsibilities at the national level.
It has maintained as its main mission the compilation of the current national bibliography, the administration of the cataloging in publication at the national level, and the coordination of the legal deposit of imprints.
Since its establishment until NLR conducted business in the building of the former Stock Exchange, a building totally inappropriate for library operations. In a new edifice was designed to serve as a national library as part of a modernization project of downtown Bucharest.
Although Romania s president Nicolae Ceauşescu cut the inaugural ribbon at the official opening ceremony inshortly before his demise, the building was never finished and, for the next two decades, it was reduced to a crumbling shell.
In the Ministry of Culture, NLR s overseeing body, decided to borrow money from the European Union in order to have the construction finished in two years. The initial structure was preserved and it was turned into a modern space, a cultural mall, that will host the NLR along with a few other cultural institutions.
During NLR will move most of its holdings to the new location. In the NLR reported a collection of Some of the library s collections can be accessed in situ only by people of eighteen and above. Most of the holdings continue to remain in remote storages. In the library reported users, which represents. Daily foot traffic was extremely slow for an institution of national caliber. In an average of This number rose to the following year. The dart dating commercial of NLR s operations and services and the transition to the digital age are yet to come.
One can only hope that the move into the new building will attract more traffic and more usage of the traditional collections. As for online collections accessible remotely, they are still in the distant future.
In terms of collection growth, NLR s annual reports mention only print materials, with no e-book and no licensed database whatsoever. One can only hope that in the future NLR will start developing an e-collection accessible online by anyone interested The Library of the Romanian Academy Established ina year after the opening of the Romanian Academic Society, the Library of the Romanian Academy LRA has the largest and the richest collections in the country.
One of its missions consists of preserving the national cultural heritage and of supporting the dart dating commercial needs of the members of the Academy and the scientific research conducted in its sixty research centers and institutes, specialized in various disciplines, from ethnography to mathematics, from economics to medical sciences.
Its collections amount to 12 million items. Another mission of the LRA consists of compiling the national retrospective bibliography for books and periodicals published in Romania s territory since the introduction of the printing press in this part of the world, in Together with the Bucharest Metropolitan Library, LRA is engaged in a massive digitization datând un bărbat în dezintoxicare of Romanian publications.
Currently RA consists of a total of members 78 full members and 78 correspondent members and 28 honorary members in Romania and 85 honorary members overseas. Researchers are also granted permission to use the LRA collections for special projects. Its subject-specific collections amounting tovolumes are open to the teaching staff from K to higher education and to anyone else interested in pedagogy and other educationrelated issues. One of the library s major responsibilities is the compilation of the Romanian Retrospective Pedagogical Bibliography.
The National Pedagogical Library oversees the 40 county centers that support the teaching staff throughout the country The National Military Library This is a special library, subordinated to the Ministry of Defense, and open primarily to military personnel. It was established in During the communist period its official name was the Central Library of the Ministry of National Defense. Its current collections amount tovolumes, consisting of all types of history- and military-related materials, including books, periodicals, maps, and art.
The library is a closed-circuit institution and it is open to military personnel only. It does not maintain a web presence Academic Libraries The first academic libraries were established in Romania during the second half of the nineteenth century, when the political, economic, social and cultural development of the dart dating commercial Romanian Principalities Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania fostered the creation of the first universities, cultural associations, and scientific societies.
The first university was established inin the city of Iaşi, the capital of the province of Moldavia. A library established in became the Iaşi University Library. Magic Johnson was a tremendously talented and versatile player who put up amazing stats, But was a little one sided. While I dart dating commercial Jordan frustrating advantage built up by his sheer ability to score is somewhat lessened by Magic extreme versatility and overall offensive game, the spot where this becomes a nobrainer for me is on defense.
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